The working time in 2023 will be shorter than the previous one by an 8-hour daily dimension. This is related, among others, to non-working holidays. When do they appear? What happens if the holiday is on Saturday? Find out everything in this article! In addition to answering the above questions, we also discuss how to calculate working time and what it means for the employee and the employer. We invite you to read!
Table of Contents
- Working time – what is it?
- Working time schedule
- Working time in 2023 in Poland
- Non-working days – bank holidays in Poland in 2023
- How to calculate working time in 2023?
- Working time in 2023 in Poland and a holiday falling on a Saturday
- The importance of working time in 2023 for employees
- Working time in 2023 – summary
Working time – what is it?
Working time refers to the period of time during which an employee is available to the employer. Not only at the workplace but also at any other designated place. The units used to calculate an employee’s working time are as follows:
- a day – the consecutive 24-hours work cycle. It starts from the moment an employee begins work according to the applicable work schedule.
- a week – it consists of 7 consecutive calendar days starting from the first day of the settlement period.
Working time schedule
According to the Labour Code, the maximum working time is 8 hours per day and an average of 40 hours in an average 5-day working week within the adopted settlement period not exceeding 4 months. The Act provides also for some exceptions to this regulation.
The settlement period is a timeframe allowing for the assessment of the actual working time of an employee. In other words, it determines whether the employee worked the required number of hours. It allows to specify whether the number of working hours deviated from the norm, and if so, what were the reasons. Therefore, it serves record-keeping purposes.
It is permissible to extend the settlement period in any working time system. This must be justified by objective or technical reasons or reasons related to the organization of work. However, the settlement period should not exceed 12 months. At the same time, the general principles of occupational health and safety must be maintained.
The employer determines the settlement period in the work regulations, collective agreement, or announcement. The last applies if it has been extended by an agreement. This period should be precisely defined and follow legal requirements. It should indicate specific dates instead of duration periods.
Working time in 2023 in Poland
In 2023, working time in Poland will be shorter by 8 hours compared to 2022. Regardless of the settlement period, we will work a total of 250 days. It equals 2000 hours and 115 days off including weekends. Within this range, 13 days are public holidays.
Non-working days – bank holidays in Poland in 2023
The Non-working Days Act determines the number and list of bank holidays in Poland, including Sundays.
In 2023, the list is as follows:
- 1 January (Sunday) – New Year’s Day
- 6 January (Friday) – Epiphany,
- 9 April (Sunday) – Easter,
- 10 April (Monday) – Easter Monday,
- 1 May (Monday) – Labor Day,
- 3 May (Wednesday) – Constitution Day,
- 28 May (Sunday) – Whit Sunday,
- 8 June (Thursday) – Corpus Christi,
- 15 August (Tuesday) – Polish Armed Forces Day,
- 1 November (Wednesday) – All Saints’ Day,
- 11 November (Saturday) – Independence Day,
- 25 December (Monday) – Christmas,
- 26 December (Tuesday) – Christmas.
In 2023, two bank holidays will fall on Sunday (Easter and Whit Sunday) and one on Saturday (November 11). Remember that a holiday falling on a Saturday reduces the working time in 2023 by an 8-hour working day.
How to calculate working time in 2023?
The working time in the adopted settlement period is the sum of:
1. The product of 40 hours and the number of weeks in the settlement period (40 hours x number of weeks),
2. The product of 8 hours and the number of days remaining until the end of the settlement period, from Monday to Friday (8 hours x the number of days).
3. The result should be reduced by the product of 8 hours and the number of holidays falling on a day other than Sunday in the given settlement period (result – (8 hours x holiday number)).
For example, in the case of January, the calculation looks as follows:
(40 hours x 4 weeks) + (8 hours x 2 days) – (8 hours x 1 holiday) = 168 hours, i.e., 21 days.
The working time depends on two factors:
- Each holiday occurring in the settlement period and falling on a day other than Sunday.
- The number of hours of excused absence from work to be worked during this period, according to the adopted work schedule.
Working time in 2023 in Poland and a holiday falling on a Saturday
Holidays falling in the settlement period reduce the working time in this period. This means that any work performed by an employee beyond this reduced time represents overtime. For extra hours an employee is entitled to remuneration of an appropriately higher rate.
When a holiday falls on a workday or Sunday, its impact on the number of working days in the settlement period is clear. However, it is different when the holiday falls on a Saturday. In such cases, the working time depends on the applicable work schedule. In practice, this means:
- The working time of employees who work 8 hours per week (full-time employees) is reduced by 8 hours. This results in an additional day off during the working week. It should be granted by the employer until the end of the respective settlement period.
- The working time of employees employed in the equivalent working time system is reduced by 8 hours per day until the end of the settlement period. In other words, such employees can modify their working day accordingly, coming in earlier or leaving later.
- The working time of part-time employees is proportionally reduced in the given settlement period. The reduction is based on the proportion of the full-time equivalent.
- With respect to other working time schedules that exceed 40 hours per week, the shortening of working time due to a Saturday holiday takes place at a correspondingly lower rate.
The importance of working time in 2023 for employees
Employees are guaranteed at least 11 consecutive hours of uninterrupted rest in each 24-hour period. There are some exceptions to that rule specified by the Act. Additionally, employees are entitled to a minimum of 35 consecutive hours of uninterrupted rest each week. This must include at least 11 consecutive hours of daily rest. Appropriate modifications depending on the applicable work schedule/system may be introduced.
Therefore, the working time schedule has implications for:
- Monitoring the worked hours,
- Transparency in calculating the remuneration,
- Efficient planning of holiday leave,
- The ability to regenerate and rest, which leads to increased productivity at work
Working time in 2023 – summary
Precisely defined time frames for the employee’s availability to the employer are important. Not only for record-keeping and financial reasons but also for the comfort of work. Providing employees with a clear work schedule allows them to plan their rest. This has an impact on efficient task performance. Therefore, the reduced working time in 2023 in Poland may be beneficial for both parties in the employment relationship.
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